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The Ancient World:
  Readings in Social and Cultural History, Fifth Edition

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 Temples and Priests 

1.1 Flood Stories 

1.1.1 The Flood in The Epic of Gilgamesh 

1.1.2 The Flood in Genesis 

1.2   Divinity and its Limitations 

1.3   The Gods in Their Temples: A Sacred Marriage Drama 

1.4   Sacred Prostitution 

1.5   Covenant and Consequences

1.5.1 The Demands of the covenant

1.5.2 The Covenant as a Marriage Contract: Hosea 

1.6   The Call of the Prophet 

1.7   Prophets and Palaces: Jeremiah Confronts the King 

1.8   “I Will be With Him in Trouble”: Personal Religion and Piety 

1.9   Empire, Exile, and Monotheism 

1.9.1 The Great Hymn to the Aten 

1.9.2 Yahweh: The Lord of History 

1.10 Tombs and Immortality 

1.10.1 Book Writing: A New Form of Immortality 

1.10.2 Caught in the Act: Ancient Egyptian Tomb Robbers 

CHAPTER 2 Palaces and Kings 

2.1   Loyalty to the King: The Egyptian Theory of Government 

2.2   But if Pharaoh Fails…

2.3   Women in Power 

2.3.1 Ku Baba 

2.3.2 Zakutu, Wife of Sennacherib 

2.3.3 Jezebel 

2.3.4 Athaliah 

2.4 A Critique of Kingship: The Negative View of Samuel 

2.5 War and Warfare 

2.5.1 Sumerian Intercity Wars: Umma versus Lagash 

2.5.2 Sargon of Akkad: The Idea of Empire 

2.5.3 Egyptian Imperialism and Terror 

2.5.4 Assyrian Use of Terror 

2.5.5 The Fall of Jerusalem 

2.5.6 The Horrors of Siege 

2.5.7 POWs and MIAs 

2.6 “A Palace of Cedar, Cypress, Juniper… and Tamarisk”: Builders As
             Well As Destroyers

2.7 An Imperial Coup D’Etat: The Behistun Inscription of Darius I 

2.8 “That the Strong Might Not Oppress the Weak, and That They
              Should Give Justice to Orphans and Widows” 

2.8.1 Hammurapi’s Justice 

2.8.2 “To Fill the Vast Land with a Plenitude of Food and Lasting
    Happiness: The Characteristics of a Perfect Kingship” 

2.8.3 The Justice of the Pharaoh 

2.8.4 “They Carry the Sheaves, but Still Go Hungry; They Tread the
                 Winepresses, yet Suffer Thirst” 

2.8.5 Imperial toleration: The cyrus cylinder

2.8.6 A Model Persian Governor: Cyrus the Younger (ca. 400 b.c.) 

CHAPTER 3 Daily Life 

3.1 Marriage and Property 

3.2 Marriage and Children 

3.3 Laws Regarding Sex 

3.4 Disputes, Litigation, Punishment 

3.4.1 Runaway Slaves 

3.4.2 Crime and Punishment 

3.4.3 Conducting Business 

3.4.4 Negligence 

3.4.5 Debt 

3.5 Papyrus Lansing: A Bureaucrat’s View of Life 

3.6 “Wash and Perfume Yourself and Put on Your Best Clothes” 

CHAPTER 4 The Origin and Spread of the Polis System 

4.1   A Greek Definition of the Polis 

4.2.1 Greek Life in the Eighth Century b.c. 1: “The Shield of Achilles” 

4.2.2 Animal Sacrifice

4.3   Greek Life in the Eighth Century b.c. 2: Hesiod’s Works and Days 

4.4   Colonization and the Expansion of the Polis System: The Case of

4.4.1 Herodotus’ Account 

4.4.2 Oath of the Colonists 

4.5   Greeks and Non-Greeks in the Greek Colonies: The Foundation of

4.6   Greeks and Scythians in the Black Sea: Coexistence and Interaction 


CHAPTER 5 Warfare and the Polis 

5.1. The Aristocratic Warrior 

5.1.1 The Warrior Ideal  81

5.1.2 The Warrior and Society: The Drinking Song of Hybrias 

5.2 The Hoplite Revolution and the Citizen Soldier 

5.2.1 The Reality of Battle 

5.2.2 A Good Citizen: Tellus of Athens 

5.2.3 Only Farmers Can Be Good Citizens 

5.3 The Hoplite Polis: Sparta 

5.4 Heroic Athletics: The Chariot Race at Patroclus’ Funeral Games 

5.5 An Athletic Dynasty: The Diagorids of Rhodes 

5.6 Athletics and the Polis: A Philosophical Critique 

CHAPTER 6 The Crisis of the Archaic Polis 

6.1 Aspects of Aristocratic Life at its Peak 

6.1.1 A Fine Symposium: Xenophanes 

6.1.2 The Life of an Aristocrat: Alcaeus 

6.1.3 When You Are “Repulsive to Boys and a Laughingstock to
Women”: Mimnermus on Old Age 

6.1.4A A Woman’s View of Aristocratic Life: Sappho’s “To Anactoria” 

6.1.4B Sappho on Old Age

6.2 The Crisis of the Aristocracy 1: The Laments of Theognis 

6.3 Portrait of a Vulgar Upstart: Anacreon 

6.4 The Crisis of the Aristocracy 2: Corinth 

6.5 The Crisis of the Aristocracy 3: Athens 

6.6 Cleisthenes and the Origin of the Athenian Democracy

CHAPTER 7 Husbands, Wives, and Slaves: The Domestic Foundations
     of the Polis

7.1   The Education of a Wife 

7.2   The Short Sad Life of a God Woman: The Epitaph of Sokratea
of Paros 

7.3   If Only We Could Reproduce Without Women…! 

7.4   Slaves: The Best and Most Necessary of Possessions

7.5   “We Have Mistresses for Our Pleasure”: Sex and Slavery in the Oikos

7.6   Freedom and Its Problems: The Life of Neaera 

7.7   How to Become a Slave: Be in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time 

7.8   The Slave Trade: A Eunuch’s Revenge 

CHAPTER 8 Empire and Democracy: The Classical Polis 

8.1   The Golden Age: A Greek View 

8.2   The Persian Empire and the Greek WorldView 

8.2.1 Greeks Are Newcomers Compared to the Egyptians 

8.2.2 All Customs Are Relative 

8.3   The Athenian Empire: Origins and Structure 

8.4   Imperial Democracy: A Critical View 

8.5   Athens and Her Subjects: The Case of Erythrae 

8.6   Imperial Democracy: A Favorable View—Pericles’ Funeral Oration

8.7 The Plague at Athens (430–429 b.c.) 

8.8 War and Politics: The Case of Corcyra

8.9 “War is a Hard Master”: The Melian Dialogue 

8.10 Religion in the Classical Polis: The Affair of the Herms 

8.11 The Demos Must Be Pure: Athenian Law on Teachers and 
              Their Students

8.12 Defeat and Hard Times: Athens After the Peloponnesian War

8.13 Personal Religion in Classical Greece: Personal Religion in
    Classical Greece: The Case of Xenophon

Chapter 9 The Fourth Century: Century of Crisis and Innovation

9.1 Death of a Gadfly: The Apology of Socrates

9.2 Social Upheaval in Greece in the Fourth Century b.c.

9.2.1 Isocrates, Panegyricus (ca. 380 b.c.)

9.2.2 Political Revolution in Argos

9.3 Plato and the Turn to Monarchy

9.3.1 The Philosopher King as Savior of Greece

9.3.2 The Training of a Philosopher: The Allegory of the Cave

9.4 The Achievements of Philop II: Alexander the Great’s Speech 
              at Opis (324 b.c.)

9.5 New Views of the Individual: Epicureanism and Stocism

9.5.1 Epicurus’ Letter to Menoceus

9.5.2 Cleanthes’ Hymn to Zeus

9.6 The Two Sides of Greek Medicine: Science and Religion

9.6.1 On the Sacred Disease by Hippocrates     

9.6.2 The Oath

9.6.3 Cures of Asclepius at Epidarus (Selections) ca. 320 b.c.   

CHAPTER 10 The Hellenistic Age 

10.1 Alexander The Great: Two Contrasting Views 

10.1.1 An Idealistic View 

10.1.2 A Jaundiced View of Alexander’s Conquests and Their Results 

10.2 Alexandria and the Colonial World of Hellenistic Egypt 

10.2.1 A Hellenistic Metropolis: Alexandria in Egypt 

10.2.2 Middle-Class Life in Hellenistic Alexandria 

10.2.3 “Take Particular Care That No Fraud Occur”: The Ideal of
      Honest and Efficient Administration 

10.2.4 Administrative Oppression in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Amnesty
                  of 118 B.C. 

10.3 Culture Contact, Culture Clash: Religion and Society in the 
              Hellenistic World 

10.3.1 The Origin of Sarapis 

10.3.2 The Praises of Isis, Mistress of the Universe and Creator
                  of Civilization 

10.3.3 How Sarapis Came to Delos: The Family of Apollonios,
                  Priest of Sarapis 

10.3.4 Culture Clash: Jewish Resistance to Hellenism and 
                  the Origins of Hanukkah 

10.4   Jewish Life in the Diaspora: The Synagogue

10.4.1 The Synagogue of Alexandria 

10.4.2 Moses Ordains the Sabbath Ritual 

10.5 “Ptolemy is a Good Paymaster”: Opportunities and Social Roles
    in the Hellenistic Period 

10.5.1 An Athenian Boy Makes Good: The Life of Kallias, Ptolemaic
Governor ofHalicarnassus (Athens, 270–269 b.c.) 

10.5.2 The Dangerous Life of a Soldier of Fortune 

10.5.3 Recommendation for a Government Job (Egypt, 255 b.c.) 

10.5.4 A Woman in Politics: Phyle, Wife of Thessalos (Priene, First
                Century b.c.) 

10.5.5 A Woman Philosopher: The Life of Hipparchia 

10.5.6 A Professional Woman: Phanostrate, Midwife and Doctor
                (Athens, Fourth Century b.c.) 

10.5.7 A Professional Woman: The Theban Harpist Polygnota, 
                Daughter of Socrates (Delphi, 86 b.c.) 

10.5.8 The Romance of Prince Antiochus and Queen Stratonice 

10.5.9 The Marriage Contract of Heracleides and Demetria (311 b.c.) 

CHAPTER 11 Political Culture of the Roman Republic 

11.1 Order and Liberty: The Monarchy and the Republic 

11.2 The Importance of Concord: Secession and Concession 

11.3 Values That Made Rome Great 

11.3.1 “All Things Went Well When We Obeyed the Gods, but
    Badly When We Disobeyed Them”: The Speech of Camillus 

11.3.2 The Glory of Rome Before All Else: Mucius Scaevola 

11.3.3 “The Laws of War and Peace”: The Schoolmaster of Falerii 

11.3.4 Fame, Family, and Self-Promotion: The Roman Funeral 

11.3.5 Money-Making, Religion, Bribery 

11.4 Getting Elected: Techniques for the Candidate 

CHAPTER 12    War and Warfare 

12.1 The Enemy: A Roman View 

12.1.1 Celtic Ferocity 

12.1.2 The Samnite Enemy 

12.2 Roman Ferocity: “Decius… Summoning and Dragging to
    Himself the Army Devoted Along With Him” 

12.3 Steadiness of the Romans: How They Coped With Defeat 

12.4 The Complexities of War: Foreign and Domestic Issues 

12.5 The Sack of Carthage 

12.6 The Triumphal Parade of Aemilius Paullus 

12.7 War as Personal Vengeance

CHAPTER 13 Society and Culture in the Republic 

13.1 “Secret Rites Performed at Night”: The Bacchanalian Conspiracy 

13.2 Patricians and Plebeians: Patrons and Clients 

13.3 Patria Potestas and Materna Auctoritas: The Power of Fathers
    and Mothers over Their Children 

13.4 Marriage: Legalities and Realities 

13.5 The Rape of Chiomara 

13.6 “A Wife Without a Dowry is Under Her Husband’s Thumb” 

13.7 “Sell Worn-Out Oxen… Old and Sick Slaves” 

13.8 Economics of Farming 

CHAPTER 14 The Roman Revolution 

14.1 “Greed, Unlimited and Unrestrained, Corrupted and Destroyed

14.2 Social and Economic Conditions: The Gracchi 

14.3 Politicians and Generals Out of Control 

14.4 Social and Cultural Changes

14.4.1 “The Beginnings of Foreign Luxury” 

14.4.2 “He Mocked all Greek Culture and Learning” 

14.4.3 In Defense of Public Service 

14.4.4 Cicero on the Decadence of the Roman Elite 

14.5 Women of the Late Republic: Standing up to the Triumvirs 

14.6 The Augustan Settlement 

14.7 The Reforms of Augustus 

14.8 Reaction to Augustus’ Moral Reforms 

CHAPTER 15 The Roman Peace 

15.1 “They Make a Desert and Call it Peace”: A View of Rome 
               from the Provinces 

15.2 Foreigners in the Roman Army 

15.3 The Alternative: “If the Romans Are Driven Out What Else Can 
              There be Except Wars Among All These Nations?” 

15.4 “Nations by the Thousands… Serve the Masters of the Entire World”:
    What Held the Roman Empire Together?

15.5 Making It at Rome

15.5.1 The Career of an Emperor: Septimius Severus 

15.5.2 A Celt Makes Good 

15.5.3 Making It in the Ranks 

15.6 Provincial Administration: Hands-On Style 

15.7 Getting Along Together: The Role of Citizenship  not all Romans
               Welcomed Foreigners   

15.8 The Role of Law 

CHAPTER 16 Society and Culture in the Roman Empire 

16.1 Obligations of the Rich 

16.2 Imperial Obligations 

16.3 Religions and Moralities 

16.3.1 Civic Religion 

16.3.2 The Ideology of Paganism 

16.3.3 The Divine Emperor 

16.3.4 Rural Religions and Superstitions 

16.3.5 A Holy Man Stops a Plague at Ephesus 

16.3.6 Jesus of Nazareth 

16.3.7 Paul of Tarsus

16.4 Christian Practice 

16.5 Pliny’s Encounter With Christianity 

16.6 Rabbinic Judaism 

16.7 Judaism of the Diaspora 

16.7.1 Prologue to the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach 

16.7.2 “The Mishnah Is the Holy One’s Mystery” 

16.8 Divination, Astrology, Magic 

16.8.1 “Will Her Lover Outlive Her?” 

16.8.2 “Thumbs Down Indicates Approval” 

16.9 Moral Behavior 

16.9.1 Moral Relativism 

16.9.2 Moral Dogmatism 

CHAPTER 17 Daily Life in the Roman Empire 

17.1 Peasant Life 

17.2 City Life 

17.2.1 How the Urban Lower Classes Coped 

17.2.2 Upper Classes: Technology and the Good Life 

17.2.3 Leisure: Gymnasia, the Baths, the Circus, the Arena 

17.3 Daily Life as Seen Through the Law Codes 

17.3.1 “If, While Several Persons Are Playing Ball . . .”

17.3.2 Bequests 

17.3.3 “Wolves Carried Away Some Hogs . . .” 

17.4 Family Life 

17.4.1 An Affectionate Paterfamilias 

17.4.2 A Satirist’s View of Marriage 

17.4.3 A Moralist’s View of Marriage 

17.4.4 An Affectionate Marriage 

17.4.5 An Epitaph for a Wife 

17.4.6 Friendship Among Wives: A Birthday Invitation 

17.4.7 Epitaphs for Children 

17.4.8 Christian Marriage: Paul’s View 

17.4.9 Abortion and Infanticide 

CHAPTER 18 The Transformed Empire 

18.1 “Now Declining Into Old Age”: A Review of Roman History from 
    a Late-Empire Viewpoint 

18.2 New Founders of Rome: Diocletian and Constantine 

18.3 Constantine and Christianity 

18.4 The Majesty of Emperors: Desires and Realities

18.4.1 The Entry of Constantius into Rome: a.d. 357

18.4.2 The Emperor, the Truth, and Corruption 

18.4.3 The Emperor and the Barbarians 

18.5 Christianity, Rome, and Classical Culture

18.5.1 A Different Vision 

18.5.2 Organization and Ideology 

18.5.3 The Pagan Response 

18.6 When the Shoe Was on the Other Foot 

18.6.1 Theodosius and the Senators

18.6.2 The Mistreatment of Jews

18.7 The Hellenization and Romanization of Christianity 

18.7.1 Faith and Syllogisms

18.7.2 Justin Martyr: “Christianity Is the True Philosophy” 

18.7.3 Monasticism 

18.8 The Fall of Rome 

CHAPTER 19 Late Antiquity: The World of the Abrahamic Religions 

19.1 Revolutionary Monotheism

19.2 The Conversion of a Barbarian King 

19.3 Byzantine Grandeur: The Church of Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia 

19.4 The Splendor of the Byzantine Court 

19.5 Augustine’s Two Cities: The City of God and the City of Man 

19.6 “There are Two Powers by Which This World is Ruled”

19.7 The Quran: The Sacred Scriptures of Islam 

19.7.1 The Five Pillars of Islam

19.7.2 Abraham: The First Muslim 

19.7.3 The People of the Book 

19.7.4 Jihad: The Sixth Pillar of Islam 

           19.7.5 Islamic Eschatology: The Mahdi, the AntiChrist, and the 
                           Second Coming of Jesus